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At the turn of the century, the German-speaking countries of central Europe experienced a surge of interest in humor theory as well as unprecedented feminist activity, making the relationship between humor and gender a fruitful area of study. This dissertation therefore examines literary works by decidedly non-feminist authors like Theodor Fontane, Thomas Mann, and Frank Wedekind as well as the feminist activist Hedwig Dohm and analyzes how humor works to influence gender representation in novels, short stories, dramas, and polemic essays. In order to make these arguments, this dissertation engages with humor theory, classical to contemporary, as well as Judith Butler's theory of gender performativity.
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Master's Papers Deposit your masters paper, project or other capstone work. Scholarly Articles and Book Chapters Deposit a peer-reviewed article or book chapter. Undergraduate Honors Theses Deposit your senior honors thesis. While in philosophy the term specifically refers to a position put forward by the American philosopher Nelson Goodman, in literature and art it refers to a variety of writers and movements. Thus, it has generally been used to describe something which, while unreal, is so in a very specific or unusual fashion, usually one emphasizing not just the "not real," but some form of estrangement from our generally accepted sense of reality.
Irrealism in Literature In literature, the term irrealism was firs. Italian neorealism Italian: Neorealismo , also known as the Golden Age, is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class, filmed on location, frequently using non-professional actors. Italian neorealism films mostly contend with the difficult economic and moral conditions of post-World War II Italy, representing changes in the Italian psyche and conditions of everyday life, including poverty, oppression, injustice, and desperation.
New Literary History
History Italian neorealism came about as World War II ended and Benito Mussolini's government fell, causing the Italian film industry to lose its centre. Neorealism was a sign of cultural change and social progress in Italy. The neorealist style was developed by a circle of film critics that revolved around the magazine Cinema, including Luchino Visconti, Gianni Puccini, Cesa.
Kmart realism, also termed Dirty realism, is a form of minimalist literature found in American short fiction. Its appearance was the result of a conflict resolution and the desire to reflect prevailing trends in the development of Soviet art and art education at the turn of the s and s. It was accelerated by the adoption in April by the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks decree "On the Restructuring of Literary and Artistic Organizations", which, inter alia, provided for the dissolution of the existing literature and arts organizations and groups and the formation of a unified creative union, as well as the adoption in October by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee a.
Macedonski, Macedonschi or Macedonsky; March 14, — November 24, was a Romanian poet, novelist, dramatist and literary critic, known especially for having promoted French Symbolism in his native country, and for leading the Romanian Symbolist movement during its early decades. A forerunner of local modernist literature, he is the first local author to have used free verse, and claimed by some to have been the first in modern European literature.
As leader of a cosmopolitan and aestheticist trend formed around his Literatorul journal, he was diametrically opposed to the inward-looking traditionalism of contemporary Mihai Eminescu and his school. Debuting as a Neoromantic in the Wallachian tradition, Macedonski went through the Realist-Naturalist stage deemed "social poetry", while progressively adapting his style to Symbolism and Parnassianism, and repeatedly but unsuccessfully attempting to impose himself in the Francophone wor.
Magical realism, magic realism, or marvelous realism is a style of fiction that paints a realistic view of the modern world while also adding magical elements. It is sometimes called fabulism, in reference to the conventions of fables, myths, and allegory. The terms are broadly descriptive rather than critically rigorous.
Matthew Strecher defines magic realism as "what happens when a highly detailed, realistic setting is invaded by something too strange to believe". Irene Guenther tackles the German roots of the term, and how art is related to literature. Calvin Maglinger December 5, — January 20, was an American fine-art painter. Background Born in Owensboro, Kentucky, Maglinger was an American artist who specialized in historical, nature-based paintings.
His siblings included two sisters and eight brothers. More than twenty of Maglinger's paintings were reproduced as limited edition prints. Over 17, of these prints have been sold nationally. His Regional Art Series, popularized in the s, was well received and won wide acclaim.
A recipient of numerous awards, the artist had. The novel is about the deterioration of a once loving marriage under the influence of capitalistic greed. It is the first American novel by a canonical author to seriously consider divorce as a realistic outcome of marriage. The story chronicles the rise and fall of the romance between Bartley Hubbard and Marcia Gaylord, who migrate from Equity, Maine, to Boston, Massachusetts, following their marriage.
The reader believes at the beginning of the story that their love for each other is unbreakable , but as the plot advances, more and more troubles arise, alienating the couple. Soon their entire marriage collapses, inundated with problems from a wide array of areas. Marcia Hubbard, lost and desolate in the gloom of her husband's abandon. Photograph of the first production in Stockholm of August Strindberg's naturalistic play Miss Julie in November , at The People's Theatre Naturalism is a movement in European drama and theatre that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
It refers to theatre that attempts to create an illusion of reality through a range of dramatic and theatrical strategies. The three primary principles of naturalism faire vrai, faire grand and faire simple are first, that the play should be realistic, and the result of a careful study of human behaviour and psychology. The characters should be flesh and blood. Naturalism is a literary movement beginning in the late nineteenth century, similar to literary realism in its rejection of Romanticism, but distinct in its embrace of determinism, detachment, scientific objectivism, and social commentary.
Zola took this scientific method and argued that naturalism in literature should be like controlled exper. The artist Christo showed with the group. It was dissolved in The Norwegian new realism was a literary movement that dominated Norwegian literature in the first half of the 20th century. With this short story, Dreiser begins to move from allegory to realism dealing with issues including sexual behavior, city life, immigrant struggles, and the conflicts between children and their parents.
His daughter, Theresa, is almost eighteen. Attracted to the city lights and life she has taken to spending her time with her friend Myrtle. They secretly spend it with two boys, Connie and George, who are considered womanizers. Every night Rogaum calls Theresa home and reprimands her for being out so late. She stays out later each night and Rogaum threatens to lock her out. One night he does, and refuses to let her in, intending to teach her a lesson.
Transrealism in poetry or uchronism, according to this poetic movement's father, the Chilean poet Sergio Badilla Castillo, is created upon a transposition of time, which means that temporary scenes merge, in the textual corpus, and in this way linear coherence between the past, the present and the future is interrupted and reality turns into a kind of derivation or timeless link to a beyond-time, where poetic pictures and actions are represented or performed.
This is how the temporal idea acquires a parachronic character or parachrony. Another element of this transience is uchrony starting from a point in the past where something happened, in a different way or as it has happened, in reality what could have been but wasn't , in material temporality, but nevertheless is possible to express itself as an element situated in abstract space, supported by the theories of Einstein and Planck, regarding the spacetime combination.
As to a quantum, Badilla Castillo claims that poetic transrealism considers the concr. Poetic realism was a film movement in France of the s. More a tendency than a movement, poetic realism is not strongly unified like Soviet montage or French Impressionism but were individuals who created this lyrical style. Renoir made a wide variety of films some influenced by the leftist Popular Front group and even a lyrical short feature film.
Poetic realism films are "recreated realism", stylised and studio-bound, rather than approaching the "socio-realism of the documentary". After a life of disappointment, the characters get a last chance at love but are ultimately disappointed aga. Scenes from a production of Mrs Warren's Profession by Bernard Shaw, an archetypal 'problem play' The problem play is a form of drama that emerged during the 19th century as part of the wider movement of realism in the arts, especially following the innovations of Henrik Ibsen.
It deals with contentious social issues through debates between the characters on stage, who typically represent conflicting points of view within a realistic social context. Pseudorealism, also spelled pseudo-realism, is a term used in a variety of discourses connoting artistic and dramatic techniques, or work of art, film and literature perceived as superficial, not-real, or non-realistic. Meanwhile, photorealistic CGI animation and 3D computer graphics used today have become indistinguishable from cine-photography. In that regard, the special effects augmenting feature film through photographic deception of the eye have gained an entirely different dimension.
Painted in , its down-to-earth subject matter and execution make it an excellent example of the work of the Ashcan School, which was active in New York City in the early years of the twentieth century. Sloan's spontaneous brushwork give the painting a sense of immediacy, while his careful attention to light and shade suggests the passage of time. This painting also marks a shift from horizontal to vertical in Sloan's canvases, an.
Romantic realism is art which combines elements of both romanticism and realism. The terms "romanticism" and "realism" have been used in varied ways, and are sometimes seen as opposed to one another. Liam O'Flaherty's relationship to romantic realism is discussed in P. Historian Jacques Barzun argued that romanticism was falsely opposed to realism and declared that " The School of Resina was a loosely linked group of Italian artists painting both landscapes and contemporary scenes in a non-academic Realistic style. The artists, mainly painters, gathered at the seaside hamlet of Resina now incorporated into the towns of Herculaneum and Portici , just south of Naples.
The group nucleated around Giuseppe De Nittis, who after being expelled from the Naples Academy of Fine Arts, move away from the city with the express hope of painting real life outdoors, and not in a studio. It was influenced through De Nittis by the Florentine Macchiaioli, but had also been influenced by the School of Posillipo of an earlier generation.
The movement was l. At the Museum of Socialist Art, Sofia, Bulgaria Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was the official style in that country between and , as well as in other socialist countries after World War II. Although related, it should not be confused with social realism, a type of art that realistically depicts subjects of social concern, or other forms of "realism" in the visual arts.
Socialist realism was the predominant form of approved art in the Soviet Union from its development in the early s to its eventual fall from official status beginning in the late s until the breakup of the Soviet Union in In the essay, she was concerned with the art work of the German-Greek painter Aris Kalaizis. While approaching his work, Strickland discovered a hermeneutical void between realism and surrealism, which she filled with the neologism.
In doing so, the Sottorealist, however, als. Soviet art is the visual art that was produced in the Soviet Union. Soviet Avant-Garde art Vladimir Pchelin's artwork about Lenin's assassination attempt, Mower by Malevich, During the Russian Revolution a movement was initiated to put all arts to service of the dictatorship of the proletariat. The instrument for this was created just days before the October Revolution, known as Proletkult, an abbreviation for "Proletarskie kulturno-prosvetitelnye organizatsii" Proletarian Cultural and Enlightenment Organizations.
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A prominent theorist of this movement was Aleksandr Bogdanov. Initially Narkompros ministry of education , which was also in charge of the arts, supported Proletkult. However the latter sought too much independence from the ruling Communist Party of Bolsheviks, gained negative attitude of Vladimir Lenin, by declined considerably, and was eventually disbanded in The ideas of Proletkult attracted the interests of Russian avantgarde, who strived to get rid of the conve. Swedish realism is the period in Swedish literature that encompassed the last two decades of the 19th century. It is generally considered to have ended in the s but the exact year is a matter of debate.
August Strindberg Strindberg, painted by Richard Bergh, August Strindberg was a writer world-famous for his dramas and prose, noted for his exceptional talent and complex intellect. The Red Room was a satirical novel that relentlessly attacked the political, the academic, the philosophical and the religious worlds. In , he briefly returned to Stockholm to stand trial in a blasphemy case against his collection of short stories Married Giftas. He was acquitted, but the trial sparked a psychological turmoil that lasted for some 10 years, during which he wrote some of his internationally best known works: the self-examinatory T.
Transrealism is a literary mode that mixes the techniques of incorporating fantastic elements used in science fiction with the techniques of describing immediate perceptions from naturalistic realism. While combining the strengths of the two approaches, it is largely a reaction to their perceived weaknesses. Transrealism addresses the escapism and disconnect with reality of science fiction by providing for superior characterization through autobiographical features and simulation of the author's acquaintances.
It addresses the tiredness and boundaries of realism by using fantastic elements to create new metaphors for psychological change and to incorporate the author's perception of a higher reality in which life is embedded. One possible source for this higher reality is the increasingly strange models of the universe put forward in theoretical astrophysics. Its main proponent and prominent figure is science fiction author Rudy Rucker. Sources Translation of Esperanto entry in Vikipedio. Initially inspired by Junimea leader Titu Maiorescu, he was later a dissident of Junimism, a Positivist and a supporter of literary realism.
He had a successful career in electoral politics, which began within the National Liberal Party and later saw him joining the Conservative-Democratic Party. Xenopol was the author of two realistic novels criticizing the social environment of his day. His campaign for realism and his positive coverage of urban civilization. Duiliu Zamfirescu 30 October — 3 June was a Romanian novelist, poet, short story writer, lawyer, nationalist politician, journalist, diplomat and memoirist.
In , he was elected a member of the Romanian Academy, and, for a while in , he was Foreign Minister of Romania. Portrait of Jan Hillebrand Wijsmuller by H. He belongs to The 2.
Golden Age of Dutch Painting. He used the bright color palette of the French Impressionists, too — but from the perspective of a Dutchman. He had been one of the students of Prof. In followed his wandering years. They led him to the Akademie van beeldende. It was intended as an encouragement award for young artists, and was considered as a national counterpart to the Paris Salon. Its existence of more than 71 years proves the success of Amsterdam's art policy. For many of its winners, it was a valuable boost to their careers in the Dutch art world.
Some of the prize winners were also recognized abroad and remain well known today. Background During the "Second Golden Age of Dutch painting", the Dutch painters enjoyed considerable arts patronage from the upper class. Heroic realism is art used as propaganda. Examples include the Socialist realism style associated with Communist regimes, and sometimes the similar art style associated with Fascism.
Its characteristics are realism and the depiction of figures as ideal types or symbols, often with explicit rejection of modernism in art as "bourgeois" or "degenerate".
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Purposes Both socialist art and Nazi art were explicitly ordered to be heroic, and were in consequence an ideal form of the real, rather than pure realism Heroic realism designs were used to propagate the revolution in the Soviet Union during Lenin's time. Lenin doubted that the illiterate population would understand what abstract visual images were intended to communicate. He also thought that artists, such as constructivists and productivists, may have had a hidden agenda against the government. Movements such as Cubism were denounced as bourgeois and criticized for its failure to draw on the heritage of art and for rejecting the beautiful on the gro.
She is mainly known for her figurines and reliefs. She had two siblings when her mother died in childbirth and gained three half siblings after her father remarried. Her brother was the sculptor Carl Milles — and her half brother Evert Milles — was an architect. She studied at the Tekniska Skolan the Technical School , predecessor to the Konstfack University College of Arts, Crafts and Design in Stockholm in —93, after which she went on to the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts in —98, where she was considered talented enough to skip a year.
She would also visit the Theosophical Society which became in. After studies at the Academy of Arts in Sweden she went to France, at first to study and later to live and work at the artists' colony in Grez-sur-Loing where she met her husband William Blair Bruce.